A la question "Pensez-vous que la pandémie globale actuelle a eu comme “effet positif” de souligner l'importance de l'épidémiosurveillance ?", le spécialiste nous répond par la positive. "Effectivement, elle met en lumière cet intérêt stratégique, et j'espère que les États mettront en place des dispositifs pour accroître cette dimension-là Mais finalement, quels vont être les leviers prioritaires pour renforcer l'épidémiosurveillance ? L'autre difficulté est que nous savons montrer a posteriori l'épidémiosurveillance mais, comme pour les séismes, nous avons encore du mal à concevoir des systèmes d'alerte efficace nous permettant d'anticiper suffisamment [les futures épidémies]. J'imagine qu'il y a une conscience aujourd'hui [de cette problématique] qui est plus forte qu'hier."
This may seem a bit idealistic to some, but here we are talking about the ideals. But even this definition does not cover it all. Let me give an example. There are lots of people around us who catch a cold with every change of season or with every sudden change of temperature. Now in common parlance, we say that these people have low immunity. But the fact is that most of these people have normal blood counts and normal immunological tests. So when these people are not down with cold they are in perfect health as per the above definition. And yet they are not perfectly healthy. Their system breaks down with every stressful condition. So we can add another aspect to the above definition of physical health:
Les chaînes de transmission. Au mois de mai 2020, une épidémie d'encéphalite a éclaté dans l'Ain, à cause de… fromage de chèvre. En réalité, c'est toute une chaîne de transmission entre espèces animales qui s'est établie, jusqu'aux humains. En effet, comme le montre une enquête de Santé Publique France, l'encéphalite a été causée par des tiques, qui l'ont transmis à des troupeaux de chèvres du bassin d'Oyonnax. Le virus s'est ensuite propagé chez l'Homme par la production de fromage. Ces chaînes de transmission sont fréquentes chez les maladies qui touchent les humains (certaines grippes, potentiellement le nouveau coronavirus, etc.) et la compréhension des mécanismes de transmission inter-espèces est primordiale pour aider à développer de meilleurs traitements.
Dans un contexte économique de plus en plus concurrentiel, la santé des collaborateurs d’une entreprise est devenue ces dernières années, un facteur important de croissance. Investir sur la plus grande richesse d’une entreprise qu’est le capital humain, c’est améliorer la compétitivité et la productivité de chaque structure professionnelle. Les études scientifiques sont unanimes sur le sujet. L’amélioration de la qualité de vie au travail augmente de manière significative les performances d’une entreprise.
A leader in the eradication and elimination of diseases, the Center fights six preventable diseases — Guinea worm, river blindness, trachoma, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, and malaria in Hispaniola — by using health education and simple, low-cost methods. The Center also strives to improve maternal and child health in Sudan and Nigeria and improve access to mental health care globally.
People through their life-style and drug-abuse, decrease their immunity and create fertile grounds for these microorganisms. And people themselves act as the carriers and create conditions for their spread. Think of it this way – if there is no drug abuse, no sexual perversions, no promiscuity – what will be the rate of infection of HIV or Hepatitis-B? Extremely low. And that applies to most of the modern diseases in some way or the other. Bacteria and viruses cannot rage a war against us – it is us who help them kill us!

1. Genes – Yes! our genes are one of the biggest factors in deciding the way in which our health gets deranged. They also decide which plane is affected the most in a particular person. Through ages, it is known to humanity that children tend to inherit their ‘mother’s nose’ or their ‘father’s eyes’. But what most of us do not realize is that children can also inherit the ‘father’s temperament’ or ‘mother’s thought process’.  And as children inherit the physical and mental makeup from their parents, they also inherit the tendencies and susceptibilities to acquire diseases. For example – it is a well known fact that conditions like obesity, hypertension, peptic ulcers, Crohn’s disease, diabetes, depression etc often run in families.
The modern medical science does not consider a person mentally ill, if he or she can not be given a disease label to wear. But look around you and you will see so many ‘mentals’ moving around. Most of us are unable to recognize when our mental health starts to fail. The reason for this is that when our mind is affected, our ability to reason and judge ourselves is also affected. And so people often do not realize that they are not in optimum mental health, until the things start taking bad shape.
Now I come back to the first question as to how ‘anger’ is generated. The moment somebody abuses you, your mind perceives it as a threat or offence based on its social learning. To counter this threat, the mind needs to prepare the body and itself for some reaction. Based on the perception of stimulus, some neuro-hormonal reactions are generated which create ’emotions’. What we perceive as ‘anger’ is the after result of that processing. Our mind generate negative thoughts towards the concerned person. The concentration level of mind increases and it is focused on the current situation. Our eyes become prominent. The winking rate decreases, muscles in face and the other parts of the body become tense in anticipation of further action.. In this state we say a person is ‘angry’. But this is the primary response occurring as a reflex phenomenon. There can be a secondary phenomenon like you can also hurl abuses or hit the person, or just walk away. This secondary reaction is based on the intensity of emotions and the integrity of the regulatory mechanisms in our brain.
1. Genes – Yes! our genes are one of the biggest factors in deciding the way in which our health gets deranged. They also decide which plane is affected the most in a particular person. Through ages, it is known to humanity that children tend to inherit their ‘mother’s nose’ or their ‘father’s eyes’. But what most of us do not realize is that children can also inherit the ‘father’s temperament’ or ‘mother’s thought process’.  And as children inherit the physical and mental makeup from their parents, they also inherit the tendencies and susceptibilities to acquire diseases. For example – it is a well known fact that conditions like obesity, hypertension, peptic ulcers, Crohn’s disease, diabetes, depression etc often run in families.
Cette approche accorde un rôle majeur aux vétérinaires et propriétaires ou gestionnaires d’animaux ainsi qu'aux personnes en contact régulier avec les faunes domestique et sauvage et l’environnement (et en particulier : éleveurs mais aussi pêcheurs, chasseurs, forestiers et gestionnaires d'espaces protégés). Pour l'OIE, sa mise en œuvre passe par « de nouveaux mécanismes amenant tous ces acteurs à s’informer mutuellement et à agir d’une manière concertée, en liaison avec les gestionnaires de la santé publique qui travaillent le plus souvent dans nos pays membres sous l’égide des ministères de la Santé, qu’ils soient fonctionnaires de l’État, personnels de collectivités ou médecins libéraux »3.

The premise of body cleansing is based on the Ancient Egyptian and Greek idea of autointoxication, in which foods consumed or in the humoral theory of health that the four humours themselves can putrefy and produce toxins that harm the body. Biochemistry and microbiology appeared to support the theory in the 19th century, but by the early twentieth century, detoxification based approaches quickly fell out of favour.[6][7] Despite abandonment by mainstream medicine, the idea has persisted in the popular imagination and amongst alternative medicine practitioners.[8][9][10] In recent years, notions of body cleansing have undergone something of a resurgence, along with many other alternative medical approaches. Nonetheless, mainstream medicine continues to view the field as unscientific and anachronistic.[9]
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